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የአለም መጨረሻ ይሆን? White House officially changed to house of gay

ከደቂቃዎች በፊት “ዋይት ሀውስ” የ ፌስ ቡክ ገፃቸውን “ፒክቸሩን” የግብረ ሰዶማውያን ባንዲራ በሆነው ቀስተ ደመና? ባሸበረቀ ቀለም መቀየራቸውን ተከትሎ በመላ አለም የሚገኙ የማህበራዊ ድህረ ገፅ ተጠቃሚዎች ተቋውሟቸውን እየገለፁ ይገኛሉ።
ግብረ ሰዶማውያን ከ እለት ወደ እለት ቁጥራቸው ከብርሃን በፈጠነ ፍጥነት እየጨመረ ነው። ትላንት የምናውቃቸው ውሎ ሲያድር እየተለወጡብን ነው ይህ ውሸት የሚመስል መራር እውነት ነው። አሜሪካ የሁሉም እንዳልሆነች ዛሬ የግብረሰዶማውያን ብቻ ለመሆን እየተንደረደረች ነው ይኸው አፀያፊውን ጉዞ የቤተመንግስቷን ቀለም በመቀየር ጀምራለች።
አሁን ሁሉም ነገር ያበቃለት ይመስላል የ አለም ፓሊስ በምትባለው ሀገረ አሜሪካ የተመሳሳይ ፆታ ጋብቻ በይፋ ተፈቅዷል። ይህ ያሳዝናል ማሳዘን ብቻም ሳይሆን ከዚህ በኋላ ደሃ ሀገሮች ለ እርዳታ ሲባል ይህን አፀያፊ ህግ እንዲተገብሩ በብዙ መልኩ እንደሚተበተቡ ሲታሰብ ይበልጥ ያበሽቃል፣ያበግናል
የቤተክርስቲያን ሰዎችም ቢሆኑ ጉዳዩን ለ እግዚአብሔር አሳልፈው ከመስጠት ባለፈ አንዳችም ነገር መፈየድ አልቻሉም።
እኛ ግን ይህን ተግባር እስከ ነብሳችን ፍፃሜም ቢሆን መቃወም ያለብን ይመስለኛል። ይህ ክፉ ነገር ነው ይህን አይደለም አምኖ መቀበል ይቅርና እንዲህ ካሉ ሰዎች ጋር መዋል በራሱ ሞት ነው። ሰዶም እና ጎሞራ ላይ እንደዘነበው እሳት’ና ዲን ዘግናኝ ቅጣት እንደሚያስከትል መፅሀፍ ቅዱስን ያነበበ ብቻ ያውቀዋል
ግብረ ሰዶማዊነትን ካልተቃወምን ሌላ ምንም ‘ምንቃወመው ነገር ሊኖረን አይችልም።

lol(ቴዲ)

Teddy Afro New Music Alhed Ale 2015 Ethiopian Music


ቴዲ አፍሮ አዲስ ሙዚቃ አልሄድ አለ

ሰበር ዜና – የእንግሊዝ ውጭ ጉዳይ ሚኒስትር ዛሬ ሐሙስ ሰኔ 18/2007 ዓም በአቶ አንዳርጋቸው ጉዳይ ባወጣው መግለጫ የኢህአዴግ/ወያኔን መንግስትን ማስጠንቀቁን ሮይተርስ ዘገበ።

የእንግሊዝ ውጭ ጉዳይ ሚኒስትር ፊሊፕ ሃሙንድ
ዛሬ ሐሙስ ሰኔ 18/2007 ዓም የእንግሊዝ ውጭ ጉዳይ ሚኒስቴር የኢህአዴግ/ወያኔን መንግስት ማስጠንቀቁን ሮይተርስ ከጥቂት ሰዓታት በፊት ባሰራጨው ዘገባ ገልጧል።ጉዳዩን አስመልክቶ የዘገበው ሮይተርስ የሚከተሉትን ነጥቦች እና ሌሎችንም ይዟል –
የኢትዮጵያ መንግስት የእንግሊዝ ዜግነት ያለውን አቶ አንዳርጋቸው ፅጌን የያዘበት አግባብ በምንም አይነት ተቀባይነት የሌለው እና ጉዳዩ የሁለቱን ሃገራት ግንኙነት የመጉዳት ትልቅ አደጋ እንዳለው ዛሬ ሐሙስ ለኢትዮጵያ መገለፁን ያብራራል።
ዛሬ ሐሙስ ሰኔ 18/2007 ዓም የእንግሊዝ ውጭ ጉዳይ ሚኒስትር ፊሊፕ ሃሞንድ ለኢትዮጵያው አቻቸው ዶ/ር ቴዎድሮስ በጉዳዩ ላይ አፅንኦ ሰጥተው ማስታወቃቸውን ያብራራል።
የውጭ ጉዳይ ሚኒስትሩ ከኢትዮጵያ ጋር ያለን የሁለትዮሽ ግንኙነት አደጋ ላይ ነው ማለታቸውን ገልጧል።
የሮይተርን ሙሉ ዘገባ ከእዚህ በታች ይመልከቱ።
LONDON
UK tells Ethiopia its treatment of opposition official imperils ties
The British government told Ethiopia on Thursday its treatment of an imprisoned opposition figure, who is also a British national, was unacceptable and that the case risked hurting ties between the two countries.
Andargachew Tsige was sentenced to death in 2009 in absentia over his involvement with an opposition political group and another trial handed him life behind bars three years later. He was arrested in Yemen in 2014 and extradited to Ethiopia.
British Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond said on Thursday he had discussed the matter with Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, his Ethiopian counterpart, and delivered a stern message.
“I am deeply concerned that, a year after he was first detained, British national Andargachew Tsige remains in solitary confinement in Ethiopia without a legal process to challenge his detention,” Hammond said in a statement after the call.
“I am also concerned for his welfare and disappointed that our repeated requests for regular consular access have not been granted, despite promises made.”
Britain summoned Ethiopia’s chargé d’affaires in August last year to seek assurances that Tsige would not be put to death.
Secretary-general of the Ginbot 7 political group, he was among 20 opposition figures and journalists charged with conspiring with rebels, plotting attacks and attempting to topple the government.
Hammond said Britain’s ties with Ethiopia were at risk.
“Ethiopia’s failure to grant our repeated and basic requests is not acceptable,” he said. “The lack of progress risks undermining the UK’s much valued bilateral relationship with Ethiopia.”
(Reporting by Andrew Osborn; Editing by Stephen Addison )
Source – Reuters
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Freedom House 2015 Report: Ethiopia’s Status NOT FREE

Freedom in the World : Ethiopia

Overview:

In 2014 the Ethiopian government continued to suppress free speech and associational rights, shattering hopes for meaningful reform under Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn. Government harassment and arrest of prominent opposition and media members continued, including the April arrest of nine journalists who were charged under Ethiopia’s controversial antiterrorism law. In April and May, massive protests in Oromia Regional State broke out following the announcement of the planned expansion of Addis Ababa into Oromia. At least 17 people died after the military fired on unarmed protesters.

Despite nascent signs of an opening with Eritrea, formal dialogues remain frozen between the two countries. The Ethiopian-Eritrean border remains highly militarized, though no major border clashes were reported in 2014.

Sporadic violence resumed in Ethiopia’s Ogaden region after talks failed in 2013 between the government and the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF), a separatist group that has fought for independence since 1991. In January 2014, two ONLF negotiators dispatched to Nairobi for a third round of talks were abducted and allegedly turned over to Ethiopian authorities by Kenyan police. The kidnappings effectively ended the talks.

Ethiopia ranked 32 out of 52 countries surveyed in the Ibrahim Index of African Governance, below the continental average and among the bottom in East Africa. The country’s modest gains in the index are due to its improvement in human development indicators, but its ranking is held back by low scores in the “Participation and Human Rights” category.
Political Rights and Civil Liberties:

Political Rights: 7 / 40 [Key]

A. Electoral Process: 1 / 12

Ethiopia’s bicameral parliament is made up of a 108-seat upper house, the House of Federation, and a 547-seat lower house, the House of People’s Representatives. The lower house is filled through popular elections, while the upper chamber is selected by the state legislatures; members of both houses serve five-year terms. The lower house selects the prime minister, who holds most executive power, and the president, a largely ceremonial figure who serves up to two six-year terms. Hailemariam has served as prime minister since September 2012, and Mulatu Teshome as president since October 2013.

The 2010 parliamentary and regional elections were tightly controlled by the ruling coalition party Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), with reports of voters being threatened with losing their jobs, homes, or government services if they failed to turn out for the EPRDF. Opposition party meetings were broken up, and candidates were threatened and detained. Opposition-aligned parties saw their 160-seat presence in parliament virtually disappear, with the EPRDF and its allies taking all but 2 of the 547 seats in the lower house. The next elections are scheduled for 2015.

B. Political Pluralism and Participation: 2 / 16

Shorn of their representation in parliament and under pressure by the authorities, opponents of the EPRDF find it difficult to operate. In July 2014, opposition members—two from Unity for Democracy Party, one from the Arena Tigray Party, and one from the Blue Party—were arrested without charges and held without access to legal representation. The Ethiopian government denies the arrests were related to 2015 elections, but the detainments follow the government’s pattern of suppressing political dissent prior to popular votes.

A series of December 2014 rallies by a coalition of opposition parties saw nearly 100 people arrested, including the chairman of the Semayawi Party. Witnesses report that police beat protesters, though nearly all those arrested were released on bail within a week.

Political parties in Ethiopia are often ethnically based. The EPRDF coalition is comprised of four political parties and represents several ethnic groups. The government tends to favor Tigrayan ethnic interests in economic and political matters, and the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front dominates the EPRDF. While the 1995 constitution grants the right of secession to ethnically based states, the government acquired powers in 2003 to intervene in states’ affairs on issues of public security. Secessionist movements in Oromia and the Ogaden have largely failed after being put down by the military.

C. Functioning of Government: 4 / 12

Ethiopia’s governance institutions are dominated by the EPRDF, which controlled the succession process following the death of longtime Prime Minister Meles Zenawi in 2012.

Corruption remains a significant problem in Ethiopia. EPRDF officials reportedly receive preferential access to credit, land leases, and jobs. Petty corruption extends to lower-level officials, who solicit bribes in return for processing documents. In 2013, the government attempted to demonstrate its commitment to fighting corruption after the release of a World Bank study that detailed corruption in the country. As part of the effort, the Federal Ethics & Anti-Corruption Commission made a string of high-profile arrests of prominent government officials and businessmen throughout 2013 and 2014. The Federal High Court sentenced many corrupt officials in 2014, including in one case a $2,500 fine and 16 years in prison. Despite cursory legislative improvements, however, enforcement of corruption-related laws remains lax in practice and Ethiopia is still considered “highly corrupt,” ranked 110 out of 175 countries and territories by Transparency International’s 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index.

Civil Liberties: 11 / 40

D. Freedom of Expression and Belief: 3 / 16

Ethiopia’s media are dominated by state-owned broadcasters and government-oriented newspapers. Privately owned papers tend to steer clear of political issues and have low circulation. A 2008 media law criminalizes defamation and allows prosecutors to seize material before publication in the name of national security.

According to the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), Ethiopia holds at least 17 journalists behind bars—the second-highest number of jailed journalists in Africa as of December 2014, after Eritrea. Restrictions are particularly tight on journalists perceived to be sympathetic to protests by the Muslim community, and journalists attempting to cover them are routinely detained or arrested. Those reporting on opposition activities also face harassment and the threat of prosecution under Ethiopia’s sweeping 2009 Antiterrorism Proclamation. At least 14 journalists have been convicted under Ethiopia’s antiterror law since 2011, and none convicted have been released.

In April 2014, police arrested nine journalists—six associated with the Zone9 blogging collective and three freelancers—and charged them with terror-related offenses. Their trial has been postponed 13 times and was closed to the public until recently; their defense lawyer claims the defendants were forced to sign false confessions while in prison.

In June, the government fired 18 people from a state-run, Oromia-based broadcaster, silencing the outlet’s reporting on Oromo protests. In August, the government charged six Addis Ababa–based publications with terrorism offenses, effectively shuttering some of the last independent news outlets inside Ethiopia. In October, three publication owners were convicted in absentia after they fled the country. The same month, Temesgen Desalegn, former editor of the weekly Feteh, was convicted under Ethiopia’s criminal code on defamation and incitement charges and sentenced to three years in prison.

Due to the risks of operating inside the country, many Ethiopian journalists work in exile. CPJ says Ethiopia drove 30 journalists into exile in 2014, a sharp increase over both 2012 and 2013. Authorities use high-tech jamming equipment to filter and block news websites seen as pro-opposition. According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), since 2010 the Ethiopian government has developed a robust and sophisticated internet and mobile framework to monitor journalists and opposition groups, block access to unwanted websites or critical television and radio programs, and collect evidence for prosecutions in politically motivated trials.

The constitution guarantees religious freedom, but the government has increasingly harassed the Muslim community, which has grown to rival the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as the country’s largest religious group. Muslim groups accuse the government of trying to impose the beliefs of an obscure Islamic sect, Al-Ahbash, at the expense of the dominant Sufi-influenced strain of Islam. A series of protests against perceived government interference in religious affairs since 2012 have ended in a number of deaths and more than 1,000 arrests.

Academic freedom is often restricted in Ethiopia. The government has accused universities of being pro-opposition and prohibits political activities on campuses. There are reports of students being pressured into joining the EPRDF in order to secure employment or places at universities; professors are similarly pressured in order to ensure favorable positions or promotions. The Ministry of Education closely monitors and regulates official curricula, and the research, speech, and assembly of both professors and students are frequently restricted. In 2014, the Scholars at Risk network catalogued three incidents in academia, including the jailing or firing of professors who expressed antigovernment opinions.

The presence of the EPRDF at all levels of society—directly and, increasingly, electronically—inhibits free private discussion. Many people are wary of speaking against the government. The EPRDF maintains a network of paid informants, and opposition politicians have accused the government of tapping their phones.

E. Associational and Organizational Rights: 0 / 12

Freedoms of assembly and association are guaranteed by the constitution but limited in practice. Organizers of large public meetings must request permission from the authorities 48 hours in advance. Applications by opposition groups are routinely denied and, in cases when approved, organizers are subject to government meddling to move dates or locations. Since 2011, ongoing peaceful demonstrations held by members of the Muslim community have been met with violent responses from security forces. Protesters allege government interference in religious affairs and politically motivated selection of members of the Ethiopian Islamic Affairs Supreme Council. Though momentum has slowed, protests continue.

After the government announced an expansion of Addis Ababa’s city limits into the Oromia Regional State in April 2014, thousands of Ethiopians took to the streets. Witnesses reported that police fired on peaceful protesters, killing at least 17—most of whom were students in nearby universities—and detained hundreds.

The 2009 Charities and Societies Proclamation restricts the activities of foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) by prohibiting work on political and human rights issues. Foreign NGOs are defined as groups receiving more than 10 percent of their funding from abroad, a classification that includes most domestic organizations as well. The law also limits the amount of money any NGO can spend on “administration,” a controversial category that the government has declared includes activities such as teacher or health worker training, further restricting NGO operations even on strictly development projects. NGOs have struggled to maintain operations as a result of the law.

Trade union rights are tightly restricted. Neither civil servants nor teachers have collective bargaining rights. All unions must be registered, and the government retains the authority to cancel registration. Two-thirds of union members belong to organizations affiliated with the Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions, which is under government influence. Independent unions face harassment, and trade union leaders are regularly imprisoned. There has not been a legal strike since 1993.

F. Rule of Law: 3 / 16

The judiciary is officially independent, but its judgments rarely deviate from government policy. The 2009 antiterrorism law gives great discretion to security forces, allowing the detention of suspects for up to four months without charge. After August 2013 demonstrations to protest the government’s crackdown on Muslims, 29 demonstration leaders were charged under the antiterrorism law with conspiracy and attempting to establish an Islamic state; their trial remains ongoing. Trial proceedings have been closed to the public, media, and the individuals’ families. According to HRW, some defendants claimed that their access to legal counsel has been restricted.

Conditions in Ethiopia’s prisons are harsh, and detainees frequently report abuse. A 2013 HRW report documented human rights violations in Addis Ababa’s Maekelawi police station, including verbal and physical abuse, denial of basic needs, and torture.

Yemen’s June 2014 arrest and extradition of British citizen Andargachew Tsige to Ethiopia at the government’s request has sparked outrage from human rights groups. Andargachew is the secretary-general of banned opposition group Ginbot 7 and was sentenced to death in absentia in 2009 and again in 2012 for allegedly plotting to kill government officials. Reports suggest that police have denied the British Embassy consular access.

Domestic NGOs say that Ethiopia held as many as 400 political prisoners in 2012, though estimates vary significantly. Nuredine “Aslan” Hasan, a student belonging to the Oromo ethnic group, died in prison in 2014; conflicting reports about the cause of his death—including torture—have not been verified.

The federal government generally has strong control and direction over the military, though forces such as the Liyu Police in the Ogaden territory sometimes operate independently.

Repression of the Oromo and ethnic Somalis, and government attempts to coopt their parties into subsidiaries of the EPRDF, have fueled nationalism in both the Oromia and Ogaden regions. Persistent claims that government troops in the Ogaden area have committed war crimes are difficult to verify, as independent media are barred from the region. The government’s announcement of its intention to expand Addis Ababa’s city limits into the Oromia Regional State exacerbates tensions over historical marginalization of Oromia; according to activists, the expansion will displace two million Oromo farmers.

Same-sex sexual activity is prohibited by law and punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment.

G. Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights: 5 / 16

While Ethiopia’s constitution establishes freedom of movement, insecurity—particularly in eastern Ethiopia—prevents unrestricted movement into affected sites.

Private business opportunities are limited by rigid state control of economic life and the prevalence of state-owned enterprises. All land must be leased from the state. The government has evicted indigenous groups from various areas to make way for projects such as hydroelectric dams. It has also leased large tracts of land to foreign governments and investors for agricultural development in opaque deals that have displaced thousands of Ethiopians. Up to 70,000 people have been forced to move from the western Gambella region, although the government denies the resettlement plans are connected to land investments. Similar evictions have taken place in Lower Omo Valley, where government-run sugar plantations have put thousands of pastoralists at risk by diverting their water supplies. Journalists and international organizations have persistently alleged that the government withholds development assistance from villages perceived as being unfriendly to the ruling party.

Women are relatively well represented in parliament, holding 28 percent of seats and three ministerial posts. Legislation protects women’s rights, but these rights are routinely violated in practice. Enforcement of the law against rape and domestic abuse is patchy, and cases routinely stall in the courts. Female genital mutilation and forced child marriage are technically illegal, though there has been little effort to prosecute perpetrators. In December 2012, the government made progress against forced child labor, passing a National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor and updating its list of problematic occupations for children.

Scoring Key: X / Y (Z)
X = Score Received
Y = Best Possible Score
Z = Change from Previous Year

source: https://freedomhouse.org/report/

Anti-ISIL demonstrations turn violent in Ethiopia Police beat protestors

Anti-ISIL demonstrations turn violent in Ethiopia Police beat protestors

Tamagn Show: With Berhanu Tezera one of the bravest Ethiopian artists [must see]

ኢትዮጵያዊቷ የISIS ሙሽራ እና “ጽንፈኛ” ሆነው የተገኙት አባቷ

Freedom4Ethiopian

አስደንጋጭ ዜና ነው። ራሱን የእስልምና ግዛት ISIS ብሎ የሚጠራው አክራሪ እና ጭራቂዊ ቡድንን ለመቀላቀል ከሁለት ጓደኞቿ ጋ ከለንደን ወደ ሶሪያ የሄደችው የ15 ዓመቷ አሚራ አባት የሆኑት አቶ አባስ ሁሴን Innocence of Muslims የሚለው ፊልም እስልምና እምነትን አዋርዷል በማለት በለንደን አሜሪካ ኤምባሲ ፊት-ለ-ፊት በተደረገው ሰልፍ ላይ አሜሪካ ትቃጠል፣ ሙስሊም ክሩሴድን ያጠፋል አሜሪካንና እንግሊዝን ጨምሮ…. የሚሉ መፈክሮች ጀርባ በስሜት መፈክር ሲያስተጋቡ የሚታዩበት ቪዲዮ ይፋ ሆኗል።
መፈክር ብቻ ሳይሆን የአሜሪካንና እስራኤል ባንዲራ ሲቃጠል አቶ አባስ አጃቢ ናቸው።

ልጃቸው ወደ ሶርያ ለመግባት በቱርክ በኩል ስታቋርጥ በካሜራ እይታ ውስጥ ከገባችና ሁኔታው በእንግሊዝ መንግስት በገሊ ከተነገረ በኋላ አቶ አባስ የእንግሊዝን ፖሊስ ተጠያቂ ማድረጋቸው ይታወሳል። በወቅቱ በብሪታኒያ ፖሊስ ማዕከል ስኮትላንድ ያርድ ቃለምልልስ ሲሰጡ ልጃቸው ስለአክራሪነት ፈጽሞ የምታውቅበት መንገድ ይፈጠራል ብለው እንደማያምኑ ሳግ እየተናነቃቸው ሲናገሩ ሰምተናል።
ነገር ግን አሁን ቀስቱ ወድሳቸው ዞሯል። ከ3 ዓመታት (2012) በፊት የዛሬን ጦስ ሳያስቡት እንግሊዝን ባስበረገገው የጽንፈኞች ሰልፍ ላይ ተዋናይ መሆናቸው በቀላሉ የማይታይ፣ ለልጃቸው የISIS ነፍሰ ገዳይ ለመሞሸር ድንበር ማቋረጧ በቀጥታ ተጠያቂ መሆናቸው…

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ሰበር ዜና በአንድ የኤርትራ የወርቅ ማዕድን ማውጫ ዲፖ ላይ የደረሰውን የአየር ድብደባ ኢትዮዽያ ኃላፊነቱን መውሰዷን አንድ ከፍተኛ የመከላከያ ኦፊሰር አረጋገጡ።

ሰበር ዜና በአንድ የኤርትራ የወርቅ ማዕድን ማውጫ ዲፖ ላይ የደረሰውን የአየር ድብደባ ኢትዮዽያ ኃላፊነቱን መውሰዷን አንድ ከፍተኛ የመከላከያ ኦፊሰር አረጋገጡ።

Freedom4Ethiopian

High ranking Ethiopian military officer confirmed to Awramba Times, on condition of anonymity, that Ethiopian Air Force jets bombarded two key targets inside Eritrea.
According to the official, the airstrikes were conducted separately in two key targets, at a gold mine processing facility, near the capital Asmara and a military depot in Southern AkaleGuzai, Mai Edaga.

The current regime in Eritrea is widely considered as a State Sponsor of Terrorism in the horn of Africa. On July 2012, U.S. Treasury Department had placed sanctions on several Eritrean government officials and frozen their assets for supporting al-Shabaab, Al-Qaeda’s branch in Somalia

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‘First human’ discovered in Ethiopia

'First human' discovered in EthiopiaScientists have unearthed the jawbone of what they claim is one of the very first humans.

The 2.8 million-year-old specimen is 400,000 years older than researchers thought that our kind first emerged.

The discovery in Ethiopia suggests climate change spurred the transition from tree dweller to upright walker.

The head of the research team told BBC News that the find gives the first insight into “the most important transitions in human evolution”.

Prof Brian Villmoare of the University of Nevada in Las Vegas said the discovery makes a clear link between an iconic 3.2 million-year-old hominin (human-like primate) discovered in the same area in 1974, called “Lucy”.

Could Lucy’s kind – which belonged to the species Australopithecus afarensis – have evolved into the very first primitive humans?

“That’s what we are arguing,” said Prof Villmoare.

But the fossil record between the time period when Lucy and her kin were alive and the emergence of Homo erectus (with its relatively large brain and humanlike body proportions) two million years ago is sparse.

The 2.8 million-year-old lower jawbone was found in the Ledi-Geraru research area, Afar Regional State, by Ethiopian student Chalachew Seyoum. He told BBC News that he was “stunned” when he saw the fossil.

“The moment I found it, I realised that it was important, as this is the time period represented by few (human) fossils in Eastern Africa.”

The fossil is of the left side of the lower jaw, along with five teeth. The back molar teeth are smaller than those of other hominins living in the area and are one of the features that distinguish humans from more primitive ancestors, according to Professor William Kimbel, director of Arizona State University’s Institute of Human Origins.

“Previously, the oldest fossil attributed to the genus Homo was an upper jaw from Hadar, Ethiopia, dated to 2.35m years ago,” he told BBC News.

“So this new discovery pushes the human line back by 400,000 years or so, very close to its likely (pre-human) ancestor. Its mix of primitive and advanced features makes the Ledi jaw a good transitional form between (Lucy) and later humans.”

A computer reconstruction of a skull belonging to the species Homo habilis, which has been published in Nature journal, indicates that it may well have been the evolutionary descendant of the species announced today.

The researcher involved, Prof Fred Spoor of University College London told BBC News that, taken together, the new findings had lifted a veil on a key period in the evolution of our species.

“By discovering a new fossil and re-analysing an old one we have truly contributed to our knowledge of our own evolutionary period, stretching over a million years that had been shrouded in mystery,” he said.Climate change

The dating of the jawbone might help answer one of the key questions in human evolution. What caused some primitive ancestors to climb down from the trees and make their homes on the ground.

A separate study in Science hints that a change in climate might have been a factor. An analysis of the fossilised plant and animal life in the area suggests that what had once been lush forest had become dry grassland.

As the trees made way for vast plains, ancient human-like primates found a way of exploiting the new environmental niche, developing bigger brains and becoming less reliant on having big jaws and teeth by using tools.

Prof Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London described the discovery as a “big story”.

He says the new species clearly does show the earliest step toward human characteristics, but suggests that half a jawbone is not enough to tell just how human it was and does not provide enough evidence to suggest that it was this line that led to us.122

DigThe jawbone was found close to the area where Lucy was discovered

He notes that the emergence of human-like characteristics was not unique to Ethiopia.

“The human-like features shown by Australopithecus sediba in South Africa at around 1.95 million years ago are likely to have developed independently of the processes which produced (humans) in East Africa, showing that parallel origins are a distinct possibility,” Prof Stringer explained.

This would suggest several different species of humans co-existing in Africa around two million years ago with only one of them surviving and eventually evolving into our species, Homo sapiens. It is as if nature was experimenting with different versions of the same evolutionary configuration until one succeeded.

Prof Stringer added: “These new studies leave us with an even more complex picture of early humans than we thought, and they challenge us to consider the very definition of what it is to be human. Are we defined by our small teeth and jaws, our large brain, our long legs, tool-making, or some combination of these traits?”
Source http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment

ስለ ዳግማዊ ምንሊክ የ” ኒዎርክ ታይምስ ጋዜጣ” ያወጣው ጽሁፍ

justiceethio

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ጋዜጣ (ኅዳር 7/1909 ዓም እ ኤ አቆጣጠር) የዛሬ 96 አመት የፃፈው ፅሁፍ ለአሁኑ ትውልድ ታሪካዊ ማስረጃ ነው

minilikኢትዮጵያ በየዘመኗ በሕልውናዋ ላይ የተቃጣባት የመበታተን አደጋን ያለፈችበት መንገድ የጦርነት መንገድ ብቻ አይደለም።ሆኖም ግን ከነበሩን የግጭት ታሪኮች በዘለለ በሕዝብ ዘንድ ተወዳጅ የነበሩ እና በሕዝብ ዘንድም የተወደዱ መሪዎች ነበሩን።ከእነኝህ ውስጥ ዳግማዊ ምንሊክ አንዱ ነበሩ። አፄ ምንሊክ ሀገር የማስተዳደር ጥበብን የተማሩት በአፄ ቴዎድሮስ እጅ ሆነው እድገታቸውን በንጉሡ ቤተመንግስት ማድረግ ከጀመሩበት ጊዜ ጀምሮ መሆኑን ብዙዎች ይስማማሉ።ንጉሡ የቀደሙ አባቶቻቸው አፄ ቴዎድሮስ እና አፄ ዮሐንስ ኢትዮጵያን አንድ የማድረግ አላማቸው እውን እንዲሆን ያደረጉ እድለኛ ንጉስም ናቸው።

አፄ ምንሊክ ኢትዮጵያን አንድ ከማድረግ አልፈው እስከ ኬንያ፣ሱዳን እና ሱማልያ ግዛት ድረስ ዘልቀው ገብተው በቅኝ ግዛት ይማቅቁ የነበሩ ህዝቦችን ነፃ ያወጣሉ የሚል ስጋት የነበረባቸው እና በወቅቱ በእነኚሁ የጎረቤት ሃገራት ላይ የጥቅም ፍላጎት የነበራቸው የአውሮፓ ሃገራት በብርቱ ተፈታትነዋቸው ነበር።በመሆኑም አዲስ የድንበር ውል ከኢትዮጵያ ጋር የመፈራረም ፍላጎት ከእንግሊዝ፣ፈረንሳይ እና ኢጣልያ በኩል ጥያቄ መነጻቱን የወቅቱ የታሪክ ድርሳናት ያወሳሉ።

ዛሬ ዛሬ በምንሊክ ላይ ታሪካዊ መሰረት…

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